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The sewn or binding edge of the gathered sections of a book to which the lining is applied.

The back may be flat, but more often it is given a convex curve in a binding procedure called rounding.

Also spelled The pages following the text at the end of a book on which the appendices, notes, bibliographies, list of contributors, indices, imprint, and any advertising normally appear.

In scholarly works, the back matter may be considerable.

By folding the leaves over each other close to the binding edge, the process also helps maintain the rounded shape of the spine, preventing the leaves from working their way forward.

Used since the 16th century, backing also enhances the openability of a volume by creating a slight crease in each leaf near the spine. In edition binding and library binding, backing is done by machine.

In a more general sense, any strategy designed to be implemented if a preferred method or system fails.

Back issues are usually retained in a back file, which may be stored in a different location in the periodicals section of a library, sometimes converted to a more compact format, such as microfilm or microfiche.IT leaders are tasked with making technical magic, improving customer experience, and boosting the bottom line -- yet often without any increase to the IT budget.How are organizations striking the balance between new initiatives and cost control?Back matter is paginated in arabic numerals continuously with the text.Blank leaves may be included at the end to make up a full section.

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